The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) is implementing its aviation regulatory development and reform program to improve, strengthen and reinforce aviation safety within Australia.
Regulations are written based on experience and outcomes – often negative.
In accordance with the ICAO Standard and Recommended Practice, the reform program will establish a range of safety measures, including the requirement for SMS for most commercial aviation operations including maintenance operations.
CASA policy and guidance
|Civil Aviation Act (CAA)||Civil Aviation Act (CAA)||Act of Parliament|
|Civil Aviation Regulations (CARs)||Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASRs)||Parliamentary tabling and law|
|Civil Aviation Orders (CAOs)||Manual(s) Of Standards (MOS)||Written by CASA with enforceable legislative powers|
|Civil Aviation Advisory Publications (CAAPs)||Advisory Circulars (ACs),|
Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC)
Guidance Material (GM)
|Advisory only, no head of power but defines compliance requirements|
CIVIL AVIATION SAFETY REGULATIONS (CASRs)
The table above shows the evolution of Regulatory reform since 1988 when the Civil Aviation Act came into power.
Regulatory reform is occurring so that Australian legislation is;
- Located in one place
- Aligned with international best practice
- Based of past lessons learnt
- Responsive to advances in global aviation
The final stages of the reform program are due for completion in December 2021
CASA SMS RESOURCE KIT
‘SMS for Aviation – A Practical Guide 2nd edition provides useful information for organisations-whether they are updating and improving an existing SMS, or developing and implementing a new one from scratch.
It is practical, written in plain English and takes a jargon-busting approach. The set of eight booklets outlines the structure of an SMS following the global ICAO framework.
The kit also includes a DVD featuring the video dramas, SOS and SMS and ‘What the experts say-a series of video interviews with industry SMS experts and practitioners; and a CD containing useful tools (checklist and templates). Organisations can adapt those tools to suit their own individual needs‘ (from CASA Website)
The 8 booklets are:
- Booklet 1 – Safety Management System Basics
- Booklet 2 – Safety Policy and Objectives
- Booklet 3 – Safety Risk Management
- Booklet 4 – Safety Assurance
- Booklet 5 – Safety Promotion
- Booklet 6 – Human Factors
- Booklet 7 – SMS for small, non-complex organisations
- Booklet 8 – Workbook
The kit can be purchased though the CASA online store or can be downloaded through the website.
CIVIL AVIATION ADVISORY PUBLICATIONS (CAAPs)
There are 4 CAAPs from CASA regarding SMS:
- SMS-1(0) Safety Management Systems for Regular Public Transport Operations
- SMS-2(0) Integration of Human Factors (HF) into Safety Management Systems
- SMS-3(1) Non-Technical Skills Training and Assessment for Regular Public Transport Operations
- SMS-4(0) Guidance on the establishment of a Flight Data Analysis Program (FDAP) – SMS
However, CAAPs will disappear along with CARs and CAOs as the current regulatory reform program progresses to conclusion in December 2021.
CASA ADVISORY CIRCULARs (ACs)
There is currently one AC supporting SMS in the new regulations. This is AC 119-01 v1.1 (Safety management systems for air transport operations). There is also AC 119-12 v1.0 (Human factors principles and non-technical skills training and assessment for air transport operations) which complements it.
AC 119-01 is selectively applicable during the transition period ending in December 2021
Current SMS requirements
|Air Traffic Service Providers||Part 171, 172 & 173||Apr 03|
|Certified Aerodromes||Part 139 International||Nov 05|
|Certified Aerodromes||Part 139 Other Certified||Jan 07|
|Air Operators||CAO 82.5 (RPT - high capacity)||Jul 09|
|CAO 82.3 (RPT - other than high capacity)||Feb 10|
|Approved Maintenance Organisations||Part 145||Jun 13|
|Flying Training Organisation||Part 142||Sep 14|
|Note CASR Part 141 do not require SMS but are 'strongly encouraged' to adopt SMS|
Current SMS transitional requirements – December 2018
CASR Part 119 – Australian air transport operators (certification and management)
…Deals with the certification and management for air transport operators and applies to all operators with an Air Operator’s Certificate (AOC) for current charter, RPT or air ambulance operations.
Part 119 includes requirements for a Safety Management System (SMS), training and checking and for human factors and non-technical skills training – all scaled to the size and complexity of the operation…
CASA – December 2018
121, 133, 135 and 138, implementation by 02 December 2021 (was 25 March 2021)
Part 145 for 133, 135 and 138…??
|Australian Air Transport Operations - Large Aeroplanes||Part 121||Greater than 8618kg certified for more than 10 seats or more|
|Australian air transport operations - rotorcraft||Part 133||Includes helicopters, gyroplanes or powered-lift aircraft|
|Australian Air Transport Operations - Small Aeroplanes||Part 135||8616kg or less, certified for 9 seats or less|
|Maintenance organisations (non RPT)||Part 145||Still subject to CASA/Industry consultation|
|Aerial work operations||Part 138||SMS requirements subject to risk based assessment|
|Note: Air Transport is a flight conducted for cargo or passengers, for hire or reward, and publicly available.|
CASA requires that all applicable organisations be compliant with SMS requirements by the end of the respective regulation transitional period.
The future significant (and final major) regulatory reform is for the Flight Operations suite and is currently underway. This will affect all remaining commercial rotorcraft, fixed wing, balloons and airship operations and maintenance. There will be a requirement for each of these organisations to implement and use an SMS.
CASA is also currently in the process of developing CASR Part 5 which will standardise SMS across all CASR parts (per ICAO, CAA NZ, CASA PNG…)
There is a recognition and acceptance that every organisation is unique and that the SMS needs to be appropriate to the number of persons it involves, the type of activity it conducts, and the level of risk it is exposed to. As an example, the SMS of a small country town, non-complex maintenance will not require the scale and complexity for a city based major airline.
The key CASA statement regarding an organisation’s SMS is ‘…tailored to meet the size and complexity of the organisation…’