Human Factors training

Just as SMS will become mandatory for most commercial operations under the new CASRs, so to will HF training for both Pilots, Engineers, and other safety critical personnel in an organisation.

Organisations will require an appropriate HF training training package.  Depending on the size and complexity of the operation, this training can be delivered via formal face to face course, self paced learning, online education or a blended approach. Additionally, compliance requirements will include some form of re-currency training to demonstrate on-going proficiency.

CASA produces excellent resources for HF training that are available for industry use.

Safety Behaviors – Human Factors for Engineers resource kit

HF for Engineers

CASA has released the Safety Behaviours: Human Factors for Engineers resource kit with aircraft maintenance engineers and small to medium-sized maintenance organisations in mind. However, larger organisations may find it a useful supplement to existing human factors programs or a basis on which to build an appropriate program. The kit consists of:

  • Resource guide for engineers
  • Workbook for engineers
  • Facilitator’s guide
  • A DVD featuring a drama, Crossed Wires, portraying a fictitious maintenance organisation; Right Connection and ‘What the experts say’ a series of 12 interviews with HF specialists.
  • CD-ROM of resources

You can download the various sections of the kit, or hardcopies are available from CASA’s online store. (From the CASA website)

This kit provides a step by step guide to teaching HF.  Although designed with maintenance organisations in mind (and indeed this kit will meet CASR Part 145 HF training compliance requirements with demonstration of appropriate use) the concepts are also applicable to flying operations organisations as well

Safety Behaviours – Human Factors for pilots resource kit

HF for Pilots

This resource kit was produced in 2009 and was the precursor to the above kit.  It is perhaps not as detailed however still provides a very good framework for HF training in flying operation organsations.

It includes;

  • Resource guide for Pilots
  • Workbook for Pilots
  • Facilitator’s guide
  • A DVD featuring a drama, Airtime, portraying a fictitious flying organisation; and ‘What the experts say’ a series of 12 interviews with HF specialists.
  • CD-ROM of resources

It is available for download through the Skybrary website.

It is envisaged that this kit will be updated to meet compliance requirements in the future.  As it stands now, it provides a solid basis for compliance entry control  HF training. Used in conjunction with other material, such as the above kit, it will not require significant addition to meet compliance requirements.

Guidance material – Human Factors and Threat and Error Management


Threat and Error Management (TEM) is an ICAO requirement to be integrated in all pilot training.  CASR Part 61 (Flight Crew licensing) includes this and required units of competency are details in the Part 61 Manual of Standards (MOS)

TEM is an integral part of HF needs to be included in HF training.

CASA CAAP 5.59 gives guidance the teaching and assessing single pilot human factors and threat and error management. CASA also produces other guidance material as part of the Safety Behaviours Human Factors for pilots kit

It is available for download through the same  Skybrary website.

Although not a ‘show-stopper’, this information need to be blended into HF training for flying operations.  Most pilots will already have received TEM training as part of their commercial licence.

 Integration of Human Factors into Safety Management Systems

HF into SMS SMS kitHF into SMS CAAP

HF is required to be integrated into  SMS.

Both booklet 6 of the CASA SMS kit and CAAP SMS-2(0) describe the process for achieving this

Specifically, there is a requirement to demonstrate (as a minimum) HF integration into elements of SMS dealing with;

  • both components of safety risk management
  • management of change
  • design and procurement systems
  • job and task design
  • selection and training of safety critical personnel
  • safety reporting and flight data analysis, and
  • incident investigation

Both documents are available for download from the CASA website however both contain the same information.  The chapter dealing with HF integration in to the SMS in the booklet has been translated from the CAAP.

The takeaway message is that there is no need to reinvent the wheel.  If available resources,  produced specifically to assist industry meet compliance, and they suitable to the organisation, there may be no requirement to produce an HF training package from scratch.

CASA produces excellent compliance guidance material for HF training, and assesses if industry meets compliance requirements. Effectively, it may be assessing its own work.

It makes  economic sense to leverage off what has been produced, tailored to reflect individual organisation requirments